More than 75% of autoimmune diseases display increased prevalence in women, and estrogens have been often pointed out as possible responsible due to their involvement in a rather wide number of physiological functions, including immune ones. However, to date, the role of estrogens in immune reactions, especially T-dependent ones, is still not well understood.
In this massive review the authors have gathered the most up-to-date informations concerning the epidemiologic, genetic, physiopathological and clinic aspects of multiple sclerosis.
In animal research, a clean environment is often considered a mandatory condition to avoid collateral and unwanted stimuli that might interfere with the experimental condition a researcher is investigating. On the other hand, the immune system of these animals seems to remain stunned by the lack of immune challenges, some says, to the point that these animals might not represent a bona fide model for the immune system.
One of the hardest struggle in a scientist's life is writing a paper that is complete and compelling - yet concise, clear and, overall, understandable.
The concept of the brain as an "immune privileged" environment is fading away, as an ever growing number of papers is continuously demonstrating the strict functional connection between immunity and central nervous system.
We previously reported a study, conducted by Marcello D'Amelio (here), which suggested that an anomaly in the neural circuitry of the Ventral Tegmental Area (i.e. the brain area that together with the Nucleus Accumbens regulates the reward pathways) might be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease.
A new study seems to confirm this hypothesis.
Neuroimmunological modulation of host defense is emerging as a novel approach in enhancing immune response to pathogens, as the massive use of antibiotics is resulting in the increasing prevalence of drug-resistant strains of pathogens. As a matter of fact, lungs represent an important interface that is massively exposed to noxious bacterial stimuli and that must be constantly prone to avoid infection and microbial dissemination.